How to index SQL with aggregate function SQL for Oracle?

Here the following is an example SQL shows you that select the maximum emp_address which is not indexed in the EMPLOYEE table with 3 million records, the emp_grade is an indexed column.

select max(emp_address) from employee a
where emp_grade<4000

As 80% of the EMPLOYEE table’s records will be retrieved to examine the maximum emp_address string. The query plan of this SQL shows a Table Access Full on EMPLOYEE table is reasonable.

How many ways to build an index to improve this SQL?
Although it is simple SQL, there are still 3 ways to build an index to improve this SQL, the following are the possible indexes that can be built for the SQL, the first one is a single column index and the 2 and 3 are the composite index with a different order.
1. EMP_ADDRESS
2. EMP_GRADE, EMP_ADDRESS
3. EMP_ADDRESS, EMP_GRADE

Most people may use the EMP_ADDRESS as the first choice to improve this SQL, let’s see what the query plan is if we build a virtual index for the EMP_ADDRESS column in the following, you can see the estimated cost is reduced by almost half, but this query plan is finally not being used after the physical index is built for benchmarking due to actual statistics is collected.

The following query shows the EMP_ADDRESS index is not used and the query plan is the same as the original SQL without any new index built.

Let’s try the second composite index (EMP_GRADE, EMP_ADDRESS), the new query plan shows an Index Fast Full Scan of this index, it is a reasonable plan which no table’s data is needed to retrieve. So, the execution time is reduced from 16.83 seconds to 3.89 seconds.

Let’s test the last composite index (EMP_ADDRESS, EMP_GRADE) that EMP_ADDRESS is placed as the first column in the composite index, it creates a new query plan that shows an extra FIRST ROW operation for the INDEX FULL SCAN (MIN/MAX), it highly reduces the execution time from 16.83 seconds to 0.08 seconds.

So, indexing sometimes is an art that needs you to pay more attention to it, some potential solutions may perform excess your expectation.

The best index solution is now more than 200 times better than the original SQL without index, this kind of index recommendation can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for Oracle automatically.

https://tosska.com/tosska-sql-tuning-expert-pro-tse-pro-for-oracle/

How is the order of the columns in a composite index affecting a subquery performance for Oracle?

MySQL database and sql

We know the order of the columns in a composite index will determine the usage of the index or not against a table. A query will use a composite index only if the where clause of the query has at least the leading/left-most columns of the index in it. But, it is far more complicated in correlated subquery situations. Let’s have an example SQL to elaborate the details in the following.

SELECT D.*
FROM   department D
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT    Count(*)
         FROM     employee E
         WHERE     E.emp_id < 1050000
                AND E.emp_dept = D.dpt_id
         GROUP BY  E.emp_dept
         HAVING    Count(*) > 124)

Here the following is the query plan of the SQL, it takes 10 seconds to finish. We can see that the SQL can utilize E.emp_id and E.emp_dept indexes individually.

Let’s see if a new composite index can help to improve the SQL’s performance or not, as a rule of thumb, a higher selectivity column E.emp_id will be set as the first column in a composite index (E.emp_id, E.emp_dept).

The following is the query plan of a new composite index (E.emp_id, E.emp_dept) and the result performance is not good, it takes 11.8 seconds and it is even worse than the original query plan.

If we change the order of the columns in the composite index to (E.emp_dept, E.emp_id), the following query plan is generated and the speed is improved to 0.31 seconds.

The above two query plans are similar, the only difference is the “2” operation. The first composite index with first column E.emp_id uses an INDEX RANGE SCAN of the new composite index, but the second query plan uses an INDEX SKIP SCAN for the first column of E.emp_dept composite index. You can see there is an extra filter operation for E.emp_dept in the Predicate Information of INDEX RANGE SCAN of the index (E.emp_id, E.emp_dept). But the (E.emp_dept, E.emp_id) composite index use INDEX SKIP SCAN without extra operation to filter the E.emp_dept again.

So, you have to test the order of composite index very carefully for correlated subqueries, sometimes it will give you improvements that exceed your expectation.

This kind of index recommendation can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for Oracle automatically.

https://tosska.com/tosska-sql-tuning-expert-pro-tse-pro-for-oracle/

How to use ORDERED Hint to Tune a SQL with subquery for Oracle?

Here the following is the description of the ORDERED hint.

The ORDERED hint causes Oracle to join tables in the order in which they appear in the FROM clause.

If you omit the ORDERED hint from a SQL statement performing a join, then the optimizer chooses the order in which to join the tables. You might want to use the ORDERED hint to specify a join order if you know something about the number of rows selected from each table that the optimizer does not. Such information lets you choose an inner and outer table better than the optimizer could.

We usually use an ORDERED hint to control the john order, but how this hint causes a SQL with a subquery. Let’s use the following SQL as an example to see how ORDERED hint works for a subquery.

SELECT *
     FROM DEPARTMENT
where  dpt_id
     in (select emp_dept from employee
      where emp_id >3300000)

Here the following is the query plan of the SQL, it takes 68.84 seconds to finish. The query shows a “TABLE ACCESS FULL” of the DEPARTMENT table and “NESTED LOOPS SEMI” to an “INDEX RANGE SCAN” of EMPLOYEE.

If you think it is not an effective plan, you may want to try to reorder the join path and see if an ORDERED hint is working or not in a subquery case like this:

SELECT  /*+ ORDERED */ *
FROM  department
WHERE  dpt_id IN (SELECT  emp_dept
         FROM  employee
         WHERE  emp_id > 3300000)

Here is the query plan of the hinted SQL and the speed is 3.44 seconds which is 20 times better than the original SQL. The new query plan shows the new join order that EMPLOYEE is retrieve first and then hash join DEPARTMENT later. You can see the ORDERED hint will order the subquery’s table first. This new order clauses a new data retrieval method from the EMPLOYEE table, it makes the overall performance much better than the original query plan.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for Oracle automatically, there are other hints-injection SQL with better performance, but it is not suitable to discuss in this short article, maybe I can discuss later in my blog.

https://tosska.com/tosska-sql-tuning-expert-pro-tse-pro-for-oracle/

SQL Query Performance Tuning: A Look at Various Plan Formats

SQL query performance tuning

Database professionals are often familiar with the fundamental maintenance tasks for SQL Server. However, they may have to perform the optimization of SQL queries and keep an eye on query plans from time to time.

This may lead to confusion as to which type of query plan they should use. Here, we will cover the different types and formats of query plans and how to obtain them for SQL query performance tuning.

Query Plan Types and Formats for Efficient SQL Query Performance Tuning

To start with, there are two major kinds of query plans: the estimated and the actual execution plan. Users can obtain these in three distinct formats – text, graphical, and XML.

Keep in mind that users who wish to create these execution plans will require SHOWPLAN permission first. This is also true in the case of query plans and SQL tuning for Oracle.

Text-Based Query Plans

This type of plan can be procured using one of the three methods given below:

  • Set SHOWPLAN_Text – The query will not be run by SQL Server, but this method should fetch information about the manner in which queries run. In short, this statement will display information regarding the Estimated Execution plan.
  • Set SHOWPLAN_All – Again, SQL Server won’t run the query but it will fetch thorough details regarding query execution, i.e the way it executes them and which resources it uses for this purpose. You can also get more details about the Estimated Execution plan.
  • Set Statistics Profile – SQL Server will run the statement and display comprehensive data regarding query execution. This information includes the precise number of rows that were actually processed and all the resources that have been utilised for executing these queries. This command will also fetch details regarding the Actual Execution plan.

Graphical Query Plans

This format allows users a look at numerous sources of information and plenty of tooltips in SQL Server Management Studio.

Note that if you want to view the Estimated Execution Plan, you can do so once you press Ctrl+L in the query window. To view the Actual Execution Plan in the same results set, press Ctrl+M.

XML Based Query Plans

This type of query plan gives the most comprehensive details of the plan in the extremely portable XML format. You can obtain query plans in this format using two methods:

  • Set SHOWPLAN_XML – The query doesn’t run but returns detailed information about how the statements execute and the resources used for the query execution. SQL Server also displays a detailed XML document that has the Estimated Execution plan.
  • Set Statistics XML – SQL Server runs the statement and shows information regarding query execution in exhaustive detail. This includes information on the actual number of rows processed as well as the resources applied in the query execution. It fetches a properly created XML document consisting of the Actual Execution plan, helping in SQL query performance tuning.

How these Query Plan Formats Differ in Use

The graphical format is usually the simplest to read which is why beginners usually start with them. The best way to read graphical query plans is from right to left moving upwards from the bottom while following the arrows. Additionally, you can make things easier with the Zoom In and Zoom Out functions.

You can view further details from Graphical plans with the help of ToolTips. All you have to do is point your cursor at the icon you want to know more about. While this is an extremely useful feature, it can get complicated to view every detail on a complex query with the help of this tool.

This format also forms the link between the Text and the XML formats. This is because you can save Graphical Plans in XML format. If you’re trying to perform SQL tuning for Oracle, you may consider a SQL tuning tool depending on your requirements.

Text plans, on the other hand, are more difficult to read and lack simpler rules to understand them. However, they prove useful for those who have experience with execution plans and know what and how to look for.

SQL Performance Tuning: Frequent Questions about Indexes

SQL performance tuning

A database is a piece of software operating on a computer, which means it is dependent and likely to face the same limitations as other software present on that computer. In other words, it will only be able to process as much data as the hardware can handle.

One of the best ways to speed up queries is to perform SQL performance tuning. In this post, we will answer some of the most frequent questions involving databases and indexes.

What is Indexing in SQL Query Optimization?

Indexing is one of the first things you may have come across while learning the ropes of your database. It is a wonderful tool that enables users to enhance the efficiency of their database. However, bear in mind that not every database requires indexing, and not all indexes are helpful in SQL performance tuning.

Let’s learn more about indexing: what it is and how it helps in enhancing database performance.

How do Indexes Affect SQL Query Performance?

An Index can locate data swiftly without having to go through each row in the table. This saves plenty of time! 

Certain data columns are required before you can create an index. These are –

  • The Search Key which holds a duplicate of the primary key
  • The Data Reference which has a set of pointers

All of these constitute the structure of one index. To understand how an index works, let us take an example. Suppose you need to look for a bit of data in your database. Rather than scour every line yourself, you make the computer search each row till it locates the information. Remember that the search is bound to take much longer if the requisite information is located at the end. Fortunately, you have the option to sort alphabetically to shorten the length of such queries.

What are the Types of Database Indexes?

Database indexes are of two kinds –

Clustered indexes – These arrange data using the primary key. The reason behind using a clustered index is to make sure the primary key is saved in ascending order. This is the same order in which the table stores memory.

A clustered index is automatically created when the primary key is set, which helps in SQL tuning for Oracle in the long run as well.

Non-clustered indexes – A non-clustered index is a data structure that boosts data fetching speed. It is different from clustered indexes, as they are made by data analysts or developers.

When and How Should We Use Indexes?

Since indexes are intended to accelerate database performance, you should apply them whenever you think they can simplify the use of the database. Although smaller databases may not have several opportunities to use indexes, they are likely to see the benefits of indexing as they grow into larger databases. 

You can make sure your indexes keep performing well, if you test run a set of queries on your database first. Clock the time those queries take to execute and begin creating your indexes after that. Keep rerunning these ‘tests’ for continuous improvements.

Conclusion

Indexing has its challenges, the biggest one being determining the best ones for every table.

For instance, heaps require clustered indexes because searching for a record in a heap table is comparable to finding a needle in a haystack: it’s inefficient and time-consuming, thanks to the heap’s unordered structure.

On the other hand, locating data is simpler and faster from a table that contains a proper clustered index, just like finding a name in a list that’s alphabetically ordered. DBAs, therefore, recommend that every SQL table contains a proper clustered index. Now that you know how indexes work and how they can optimize database performance, you should be able to use them to reduce query times substantially. If you would like more tips on how to use indexing, or you need a SQL query optimization tool for your database, let our experts know!