How to use Query Rewriter Plugin to tune SQL in MySQL database I

The Query Rewriter Plugin in MySQL is a component that allows you to modify incoming SQL queries before execution. It provides the ability to transform, route, filter, or expand queries based on specific requirements. This plugin operates at the SQL layer and can be utilized for optimizing query performance, enforcing security policies, implementing data partitioning strategies, or adding additional business logic to queries. With the Query Rewriter Plugin, you have the power to customize and shape SQL queries to meet your specific needs, providing flexibility and control over query execution within the MySQL server.

The Query Transformation feature enables you to rewrite or transform the original query into an equivalent or more efficient form. This can be useful for optimizing performance, simplifying complex queries, or enforcing certain query plans.

You must install Query Rewriter Plugin before using this feature, the concept of Query Rewriter is simple, it is a set of predefined SQL statements that is used to replace a certain pattern of SQL statements that is fired from your application programs.

If you have installed the plugin, the following SQL statements can be used to defined your SQL replacement rules and error message handling.

INSERT INTO query_rewrite.rewrite_rules (message, pattern, replacement)
VALUES(Unique_ID, Original_SQL, Rewrite_SQL);

The query_rewrite.rewrite_rules table in MySQL stores the rules used by the Query Rewriter Plugin to rewrite SQL queries. The table has two columns:

Pattern – This column represents the pattern or condition that triggers the rewriting of a SQL query. It defines the specific query or query pattern to match.

Replacement – This column specifies the replacement or transformation that should be applied to the matched query or query pattern.

When a SQL query is executed, the Query Rewriter Plugin checks the query_rewrite.rewrite_rules table for matching patterns. If a pattern matches the executed query, the plugin rewrites the query using the corresponding replacement. This allows you to modify the query structure, optimize it, or add custom logic based on specific patterns or conditions.

I utilize the message column to define a temporary unique id for the SQL replacement rule, so the actual rule id can be extracted with the following SQL.

SELECT id into :SID FROM query_rewrite.rewrite_rules where message=Unique_ID;

When you make changes to the query rewrite rules in the query_rewrite.rewrite_rules table, those changes are not immediately applied. Instead, MySQL caches the rules in memory for better performance. However, if you want to ensure that the updated rules take effect immediately, you can call the query_rewrite.flush_rewrite_rules() function.

CALL query_rewrite.flush_rewrite_rules();

If a load error occurs, the plugin also sets the Rewriter_reload_error status variable to ON and the error message will be stored in the Message column.

SELECT message FROM query_rewrite.rewrite_rules where id=:SID;

Actually, the Query Rewriter Plugin is powerful and easy to use. The most challenging aspect is finding a replacement SQL for your poorly performing SQL statement. Tosska DB Ace Enterprise for MySQL can assist you in automating this process, from identifying poorly performing SQL statements to rewriting SQL syntax and deploying replacement rules.

Tosska DB Ace Enterprise for MySQL – Tosska Technologies Limited

DBAM Tune Rewriter demo – YouTube

How to Tune SQL Statement with LCASE function on index field?

Some business requirements may need to compare the lower case of an indexed column to a given string as a data retrieval criterion.

Here is an example SQL that retrieves records from the EMPLOYEE table employee if the lower case of the name is equal to the string ‘richard’.

select  *
  from employee
where LCASE(emp_name)=‘richard’

Here the following are the query plans of this SQL, it takes 17 seconds to finish. The query shows a “Full Table Scan Employee”  

You can see that this SQL cannot utilize index scan even if the emp_name is an indexed field. Let me add a “Force Index(emp_name_inx)“hint to the SQL and hope it can help MySQL SQL optimizer to use index scan, but it fails to enable the index scan anyway, so I add one more dummy condition “emp_name >= ””, it is an always true condition that emp_name should be greater or equal to a smallest empty character, it is used to increase the cost of not using emp_name_inx index. There is another condition added “emp_name is null” to correct this condition if emp_name is a null value.

select  *
from   employee force index(EMPS_NAME_INX)
where  LCASE(emp_name) = ‘richard’
     and ( emp_name >=
        or emp_name is null )

Here is the query plan of the rewritten SQL and it is running much faster. The new query plan shows that an Index Scan is used now and takes 2.79 seconds only.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for MySQL automatically, it shows that the rewrite is more than 6 times faster than the original SQL.

Transferring Data in SQL Server with an Eye on Performance

improve performance of sql query

A lot of database professionals often need to archive older data in SQL Server by transferring it from one table to another. There are multiple ways to achieve the transfer, the most useful of which we will discuss in this blog. We will also provide tips to ensure the performance of the database doesn’t get affected as these approaches are carried out.

Different Methods to Move Data from One Table to Another

Consider the following techniques that various DBAs take when they have to take data from a table to add to another table along with some ways to improve performance of SQL query while using them:

  1. Insert data with the INSERT INTO command – The INSERT INTO query is one of the basic methods of moving data from table 1 to table 2. You can help decrease the time it takes to enter information using this method. If the database is running under the full recovery model, just change it to the bulk-logged model. Doing this saves execution time as it skips over complete logging of bulk operations. The following query should help with this:


Once you switch to the bulk-logged recovery model, you will have to use a truncate statement to flush table 2 (destination). You can carry out the same script you were using to transfer data after this.

  1. Use the SELECT INTO query – Using the SELECT INTO rather than the INSERT INTO command can prove useful in some cases. However, the benefits are significant when the recovery model is bulk-logged due to the reason mentioned above. Although users lack the ability to place the data in an existing table, SQL Server brought with it a feature to make things easier. It essentially enables them to pick the filegroup where they want to create a table.
  1. INSERT INTO query + Tab lock hint – Using both in combination has been known to provide better database performance. To achieve this, you will have to use TABLOCK for table 2. If the destination table is without a clustered index or other constraints, that data will remain as a heap. It helps to use the TABLOCK hint for the destination table during data insertion into a heap using the INSERT INTO statement. Doing this enhances query logging and locking since a shared lock is placed on the whole table rather than every row or page.
  2. Adding data using the SWITCH TO query – You can also try moving the data with the help of the SWITCH TO command. Although this query typically finds its use while transferring information between partitions among separate tables, it can help here as well. How? By moving data from one partition to the next using the ALTER TABLE command. If there are no allocated partitions, the data will transfer through tables instead. Before you begin data insertion, make sure you disable any constraints or indexes that exist on the table. It is better to enable constraints and rebuild indexes after insertion from a performance perspective.

Tips for Enhancing Performance During Data Transfer and Insertion

  • Reduce IO lag – Latency can negatively impact the process of writing database files on disk. You can decrease latency and bottlenecks using SSD drives that are comparatively better than SATA or SCSI drives.
  • Maintain Robust Server Infrastructure – The system needs to be properly built to ensure competent performance for various database operations. The greater the pressure on the resources, the greater the effect on performance.
  • Follow ACID Properties – ACID properties make sure each transaction contains certain properties when it gets processed. In the case of data insertion, the isolation factor is also important to consider because the values have another source. Here, the statements should contain the suitable isolation level to maintain integrity within the database.
  • Database Settings – One of the best ways to achieve improved outcomes is to maintain the right database configuration. This is because the settings can have a significant effect on performance. For instance, the location of the database files on the disk along with TempDB settings.

These are the various ways in which you can gain better performance at the query, trace, and constraint levels along with additions that can improve the execution of insert operations.

How to use FORCE INDEX Hints to tune an UPDATE SQL statement?

improve performance of sql query

We used to use FORCE INDEX hints to enable an index search for a SQL statement if a specific index is not used. It is due to the database SQL optimizer thinking that not using the specific index will perform better.  But enabling an index is not as simple as just adding an index search in the query plan, it may entirely change the structure of the query plan, which means that forecasting the performance of the new Force Index hints is not easy. Here is an example to show you how to use FORCE INDEX optimization hints to tune a SQL statement.

A simple example SQL that updates EMP_SUBSIDIARY if the emp_id is found in EMPLOYEE with certain criteria.

update EMP_SUBSIDIARY set emp_name=concat(emp_name,'(Headquarter)’)
where emp_id in
(SELECT emp_id
WHERE  emp_salary <1000000
   and emp_grade<1150)

Here the following is the query plan of this SQL, it takes 18.38 seconds. The query shows a Full Table Scan of EMPLOYEE and then Nested Loop to EMP_SUBSIDIARY with a Unique Key Lookup of Emp_sub_PK index.

We can see that the filter condition “emp_salary <1000000 and emp_grade<1150” is used for the full table scan of EMPLOYEE. The estimated “filtered (ratio of rows produced per rows examined): 3.79%”, it seems the MySQL SQL optimizer is failed to use an index to scan the EMPLOYEE table. We should consider forcing MySQL to use either one of emp_salary or emp_grade index.

Unless you fully understand the data distribution and do a very precise calculation, otherwise you are not able to tell which index is the best?

Let’s try to force the index of emp_salary first.

set    emp_name=concat(emp_name,‘(Headquarter)’)
where emp_id in (select  emp_id
         from    EMPLOYEE FORCE INDEX(`emps_salary_inx`)
         where  emp_salary < 1000000
           and emp_grade < 1150)

This SQL takes 8.92 seconds and is 2 times better than the original query plan without force index hints.

Let’s try to force the index of emp_grade again.

set    emp_name=concat(emp_name,‘(Headquarter)’)
where emp_id in (select  emp_id
         from    EMPLOYEE FORCE INDEX(`emps_grade_inx`)
         where  emp_salary < 1000000
           and emp_grade < 1150)

Here is the result query plan of the Hints FORCE INDEX(`emps_grade_inx`) injected SQL and the execution time is reduced to 3.95 seconds. The new query plan shows an Index Range Scan of EMPLOYEE by EMP_GRADE index, the result is fed to a subquery2(temp table) and Nested Loop to EMP_SUBSIDIARY for the update. This query plan’s estimated cost is lower and performs better than the original SQL. It is due to the limited plan space in the real-time SQL optimization process, so this query plan cannot be generated for the original SQL text, so manual hints injection is necessary for this SQL statement to help MySQL database SQL optimizer to find a better query plan.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for MySQL automatically, it shows that the Hints injected SQL is more than 4.6 times faster than the original SQL.

How to Tune SQL Statements with NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION Hints Injection?

There are some SQL statements with performance problem can be tuned by Hints injection only. Here is an example to show you how to use NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION optimization hints to tune a SQL statement.

A simple example SQL that retrieves data from EMPLOYEE and EMP_SAL_HIST tables.

select * from employee a,emp_sal_hist h
where  a.emp_id =h.sal_emp_id
and  a.emp_dept < ‘B’
and h.sal_salary  between 1000000 and 2000000

Here the following are the query plans of this SQL, it takes 24.3 seconds. The query shows an Index Range Scan (EMPS_DPT_INX) of EMPLOYEE and then Nested Loop to EMP_SAL_HIST with a Non-Unique Key Lookup of SALS_EMP_INX index.

The EMP_SAL_HIST is the employee’s salary history table which keeps more than one salary record for each employee. So, EMPLOYEE to EMP_SAL_HIST is a one-to-many relationship. The speed of a nested loop operation is highly dependent on the driving path of two nested loop tables. MySQL SQL optimizer estimated that the condition (a.emp_dept < ‘B’) can rapidly reduce the result set, so the driving path that “from EMPLOYEE to EMP_SAL_HIST” is selected.

Unless you fully understand the data distribution and do a very precise calculation, otherwise you are not able to tell whether this driving path is the best or not.

How to make MySQL consider another driving path “from EMP_SAL_HIST to EMPLOYEE”? Let’s take a look at MySQL documentation:

NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION: Disable index range access for the specified table or indexes. This hint also disables Index Merge and Loose Index Scan for the table or indexes. By default, range access is a candidate optimization strategy, so there is no hint for enabling it.

This hint may be useful when the number of ranges may be high and range optimization would require many resources.

To disable the Index Range Scan of the EMPLOYEE table, I explicitly add a Hints /*+ QB_NAME(QB1) NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION(`a`@QB1) */  to the SQL statement and hope that MySQL will use the Index Range Scan by the condition (h.sal_salary between 1000000 and 2000000) as the first driving table.

select  /*+ QB_NAME(QB1) NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION(`a`@QB1) */ *
from    employee a,
     emp_sal_hist h
where a.emp_id = h.sal_emp_id
     and a.emp_dept < ‘B’
     and h.sal_salary between 1000000 and 2000000

Here is the result query plan of the Hints injected SQL and the execution time is reduced to 10.01 seconds. The new query plan shows that the driving path is changed from EMP_SAL_HIST table nested loop to EMPLOYEE table. So, sometimes you may make use of the NO_RANGE_OPTIMIZATION hint to control the driving path order to see if MySQL can run your SQL faster.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for MySQL automatically, it shows that the Hints injected SQL is more than 2 times faster than the original SQL.

The Importance of Query Optimization in SQL Server Plus Tips

query optimization in SQL Server

The database is a vital part of a majority of IT systems as it contains that data that needs to be processed for utilization. SQL is the standard language for fetching data from the database using queries and query optimization in SQL Server helps maintain database performance.

The queries used to communicate with the database are almost always simple and quick. The most common operations include the four major data manipulation techniques (create, select, update, and delete) that execute at quick rates in most cases. However, as you already know, they aren’t the only tasks an administrator has to do in a database.

Why Experts Recommend Query Optimization in SQL

Operational databases may have a requirement to execute statements that take a long time. For instance, queries that need access to several tables or include tasks such as aggregation.

Although statements that operate on data warehouses aren’t time-critical, the ones running on operational databases are. They are necessary to fetch the requested information as quickly as possible – which makes SQL Server performance tuning important. One of the best examples of systems that need optimal SQL is one that has access to a geo server. A geo server contains millions of geographical information spread across countless tables.

Moreover, the database operations taking place on this data is often performance heavy. Such tasks may include the intersection of lands and calculations of area, the distance between two geographical locations, etc.

These involve complex geo operations that need a large amount of data present in multiple tables. If the SQL statement used for these operations isn’t efficient, it could take days or months to fetch the results. This is where the DBA will need query optimization in SQL Server to ensure the users don’t have to wait too long to get a result.

Some Quick Tips for Maintaining Optimal Database Query Performance

Take a look at some time-tested techniques of optimizing queries in SQL that not only save a lot of time and resources but are also useful for a wide range of databases:

  • Check efficiency using LIMIT – Many times, the queries have to run on a huge scale of data. You would not want to wait for your statement to execute completely before finding out that you have used the wrong statement or it was inefficient. Therefore, limiting your statement to a smaller amount of information can help you check its validity and with SQL Server performance tuning. Once you’ve run the query and are satisfied with its efficiency, you can carry it out on the scale you want.
  • Long statements can help – At times, you may have written statements that may seem simple to you as they didn’t take long to understand. However, they took too long to actually execute. In databases involving time-critical operations, the opposite would be preferable. Even though the queries will become complex and take a bit longer to understand, they will save a lot of time.
  • Give preference to quicker data structures – This depends on the programming-based knowledge of the DBA. For example, integer comparisons are far quicker than string comparisons.
  • Don’t be tempted to use IN operator – Checking the existence of certain data in a table may be important. But try not to use the IN operator as it slows down the result.

In Conclusion

As mentioned before, these tips are useful for a majority of databases out there. Since SQL is a declarative language, certain databases are likely to optimize for the cases we have talked about above.

However, test the tips before you try to apply them for query optimization in your database. In case some of these don’t work, you may want to consider using a tuning tool to make things easier. Get in touch with us to know how our tuning tool can simplify database query optimization for you.

Importance of Backup & Recovery in MySQL Database and SQL

MySQL database and SQL

A database is the cornerstone of any application. For this reason, maintaining one or more backup and recovery options remains a priority for every database professional. There are multiple alternatives you can choose from as per the specific needs of your organization’s database.

In this post, we will examine some of the most popular back-ups and restore strategies for MySQL database and SQL. We will also touch upon the reasons why databases require backups on a regular basis.

Why Do We Need Backups for MySQL Database?

As a DBA, you’ll need backup and recovery to support data in multiple cases, such as:

Discrepancies in Data: Users may accidentally delete or update incorrect data in the primary or replica node.

Data Centre Failure: An indefinite power outage or internet connectivity issue can spell trouble for your organization.

Disk Damage: If the disk is stalling for too long due to some kind of damage, it can greatly reduce performance. In cloud services for Oracle database, it translates into a broken DB instance that cuts access.

Broken Data: In case of a power outage, MySQL may fails to write data and close files as usual. There are also instances where MySQL fails to restart and doesn’t work despite the crash recovery process because of corruption in data.

Legislation/Regulation: Backups and recovery options ensure business value and client satisfaction.

Various Kinds of Backups for MySQL Database

Given below are some common backup categories that suit a range of needs:

Physical: These comprise the exact copies of database files and may contain part or all of the MySQL directory. The most common use of this type of backup is to make a new replica node and respond to host failure in a convenient manner. Experts recommend restoring data with the help of the same MySQL database version.

Offsite: This is one of the most recommended backup alternatives as it guarantees an untouched copy in case of data centre or host failure. It involves copying the data to the cloud, an external file server or another external source. However, sometimes it may take longer to download the files from the cloud or server than the recovery process. Therefore, experienced database professionals keep about a week of data locally on a backup server for quick recovery.

Logical: It is useful for smaller quantities of data as it is slower in comparison to physical backup methods. It essentially consists of dumps from INSERT and CREATE statements. It is useful in addressing data corruption or when you must recover a subset of tables. Although the output is greater in logical backups, especially when that data is present in text format, you can perform a quick compression if the software you’re using requires it. For instance, you can use Mydumper and mysqldump to compress and redirect the data to the zip folder.

Incremental: This type of backup contains all the changes made in the organization’s Oracle database and SQL server since the last backup. It is, therefore, quite useful for enormous datasets since it allows you to take small backups (experts recommend this after you’ve taken a full backup) as data comes later.

Differential: It consists of copying the modifications since your previous backup. One advantage of a differential backup is that it saves disk space. This is because the data in these backups mostly remains the same, so the result leads to backups that are substantially smaller in size.

SQL Query Optimization Tool Online: Top Characteristics

MySQL database and SQL

Data is one of the most important resources in an organization and SQL is the most popular method to store and manipulate it. Therefore, the widely-used Structured Query Language is supported by almost every modern RDBMS around the world.

This is also why database servers are often known as SQL Servers, where the language establishes the manner in which the statements will be formed to fetch the required data. Since modern databases can get rather bulky due to a large number of joined tables, the SQL queries needed to access the right information present inside can get quite complicated as well.

This decreases performance – and SQL query optimization is needed to maintain desired results. Although this can be done manually, there is more than one SQL query optimization tool online available for assistance. Here, we will discuss what SQL query optimization is about, followed by the major characteristics of optimizing tools.

What Query Optimization Means in MySQL Database and SQL

Let’s start with the what and why of SQL query optimization. In basic terms, it is the process of assessing SQL statements and identifying the most productive method to complete a certain task.

Generally, it involves a trial-and-error technique where different statements are tested to compare their performance. The query that exhibits the best performance while still fetching accurate data is then selected.

Although database management systems may already have query optimizers, you can opt for a third-party SQL query optimization tool online as they often provide faster and better results. The average query optimizer produces one or more query plans for each statement to help run the query.

The execution time of every plan is measured and considered as the performance parameter to pick the most efficient one that can run the query in the least time with the same results.

MySQL Database and SQL Query Optimisation: An Example

Let us consider a simple example related to this: suppose a user has to run a statement to fetch around half the information present in a table at a time when the server is already occupied with several connections at once.

This is where the query optimization tool can pick out the optimal query plan that requires minimal resources to fulfill the query. This will also take up fewer server resources. In case the user has to use the same statement at a less busy time, the query optimizer is designed to verify the availability of resources and proceed with loading the complete table in memory instead of using table indexes.

Major Characteristics of a SQL Query Optimization Tool Online

Here’s a look at the three major characteristics that are typically built into a MySQL database and SQL query tuning tool:

Compatibility with Database Engine

A majority of tools are created to support the biggest database engines out there, including Oracle, Microsoft SQL, MySQL, MariaDB, and PostgreSQL. However, some tools may be designed to support a single database management system or to be compatible with an even wider range of engines.

Essential SQL Tuning

One of the core features of every SQL query optimization tool online is the ability to provide basic SQL tuning. It implies rewriting SQL queries to boost their performance, which is done by measuring the time it takes for different versions of the statement to be executed. After this, the version that gives the best results is selected.

Compatibility with Cloud-based Databases

Certain tools come with a feature that allows them to assess and improve the performance of cloud-based database management systems. The best examples of cloud-based databases are AWS RDS and Microsoft SQL Azure. However, not every tool is guaranteed to provide this support, so check whether the one you’re considering does before you make your selection. Also, note that a majority of tools that are compatible with cloud-based MySQL databases and SQL will also work with those present on the premises.

How to Tune SQL Statements with Rewrite and Hints Injection for MySQL?

sql tuning for MySQL

There are some SQL statements with performance problem have to be tuned by SQL syntax rewrite and Hints injection, it is a little bit difficult for SQL tuning newcomers to master this technique. Developers not only have to understand the relationship between SQL syntax and the final query plan generation but have to understand the usage of optimizer hints and its limitations. Sometimes these two tuning techniques application will affect each other in a complex SQL statement.

Here is a simple example SQL that retrieves data from EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT tables.

select  * from employee,department
where emp_dept=dpt_id
   and emp_dept<‘L’
   and emp_id<1500000
   and emp_salary= dpt_avg_salary
order by dpt_avg_salary

Here the following are the query plans of this SQL, it takes 7.7 seconds to finish. The query shows a “Full Table Scan Department” and nested loop Employee table with a Non-Unique Key Lookup EMPS_SALARY_INX.

You can see that this SQL cannot utilize index scan even though the dpt_dept is an indexed field. It is because the condition emp_dept<‘L’ is not explicitly induced the condition dpt_id < ‘L’ although emp_dept=dpt_id is also listed in the where clause.

To enable the index search of Department table, I explicitly add a condition dpt_id < ‘L’ to the SQL statement as the following:

select   *
from  employee,
where  emp_dept = dpt_id
     and dpt_id < ‘L’
     and emp_dept < ‘L’
     and emp_id < 1500000
     and emp_salary = dpt_avg_salary
order by  dpt_avg_salary

Here is the query plan of the rewritten SQL and the execution time is reduced to 3.4 seconds. The new query plan shows that an Index Range Scan is used for the Department table and nested loop Employee table.

You may find that the nested loop to Employee by EMPS_SALARY_INX lookup may result into a lot of random access to the Employee table. Let me add a BKA hint to ask MySQL to use ‘Batched Key Access’ to join the two tables.

select   /*+ QB_NAME(QB1) BKA(`employee`@QB1) */ *
from  employee,
where  emp_dept = dpt_id
     and dpt_id < ‘L’
     and emp_dept < ‘L’
     and emp_id < 1500000
     and emp_salary = dpt_avg_salary
order by  dpt_avg_salary

The new query plan shows a Batched Key Access is used to join Department and Employee tables, you can BAK information from MySQL manual for details, the new plan takes only 1.99 seconds and it is more than 3 times better than the original SQL syntax.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for MySQL automatically, it shows that the rewrite is more than 3 times faster than the original SQL.

How to Tune SQL Statements to Run SLOWER… but Make Users Feel BETTER (MySQL)?

MySQL database and SQL

Your end-users may keep on complaining about some functions of their database application are running slow, but you may found that those SQL statements are already reached their maximum speed in the current MySQL and hardware configuration. There may be no way to improve the SQL unless you are willing to upgrade your hardware. To make your users feel better, sometimes, you don’t have to tune your SQL to run faster but to tune your SQL to run slower for certain application’s SQL statements.

This is an example SQL that is used to display the information from tables Emp_subsidiary and Employee if they are satisfied with certain criteria. This SQL is executed as an online query and users have to wait for at least 5 seconds before any data will be shown on screen after the mouse click.

select  *
from    employee a,
         emp_subsidiary b
where   a.emp_id = b.emp_id
         and a.emp_grade < 1050
         and b.emp_salary < 5000000
order by a.emp_id

Here the following is the query plan and execution statistics of the SQL, it takes 5.48seconds to extract all 3645 records and the first records return time ”Response Time(Duration)” is 5.39 seconds. The query shows a “Full Table Scan b (emp_subsidiary)” to Nested-Loop “a (employee)” table, an ORDER operation is followed by sorting the returned data by emp_id. You can see there is a Sort Cost=7861.86 at the ORDER step on the query plan. It is the reason that users have to wait at least 5 seconds before they can see anything shows on the screen.

To reduce the sorting time of a.emp_id, since a.emp_id=b.emp_id, so I can rewrite the order by clause from “order by a.emp_id” to “order by b.emp_id”, MySQL now can eliminate the sorting time by using the EMPLOYEE_PK after the nested loop operation.

select  *
from    employee a,
         emp_subsidiary b
where   a.emp_id = b.emp_id
         and a.emp_grade < 1050
         and b.emp_salary < 5000000
order by b.emp_id

Although the overall Elapsed Time is higher in the new query plan, you can see that the response time is reduced from 5.397 seconds to 0.068, so the users can see the first page of information on the screen instantly and they don’t care whether there are 2 more seconds for all 3,645 records to be returned. That is why SQL tuning is an art rather than science when you are going to manage your users’ expectations.

This kind of rewrite can be achieved by Tosska SQL Tuning Expert for MySQL automatically.