Being a DBA is not always a fun job, thanks to certain time-consuming tasks that it entails. One of these is to ensure optimal Oracle database and SQL performance. Typically, it is done by spending a lot of time tuning the long list of SQL statements and software code in order to improve efficiency and enhance access. However, SQL is just one aspect that is related to the performance of database systems.
Database Administrators also need to invest their time in enhancing the design, physical structure, and specifications of the database objects. These objects are the tables, indices, and the information stored over several files. In the case of data inefficiency, it becomes necessary to observe and modify the actual construction and composition of database objects on a consistent basis. This is because any amount of SQL performance tuning is bound to fall short in a database that is improperly organized or poorly constructed.
Optimizing Oracle Database and SQL: 5 Important Techniques
The DBA has to be aware of all the specifications that the database management systems consist of as this knowledge will enable them to use the right techniques to optimize database constructs.
A majority of the most popular DBMSs are compatible with all the methods we have mentioned below, though they may be used differently depending on the database. Let’s take a look:
- Indexing: An essential aspect of the Oracle database and SQL performance tuning process is by selecting the right indices and alternatives in order to enable efficient queries.
- Clustering: This involves implementing the physical pattern of data on the disk so that it is clustered on the same page whenever accessed in a particular order.
- Compressing: Data is compressed by decreasing storage requirements, thereby allowing more of it to be stored in a smaller amount of space. This also reduces storage expenses and enhances access if you can add a larger number of rows per page.
- Freeing Up Space: Assigning extra room for data growth allows new data to be added to its table easily without leaving the table disorganized.
- Partitioning: This entails the segregation of one database table into various sections that are saved in several files. This can be done in multiple ways; by partitioning one file in the same computer, partitioning using shared-disk clustering or by shared-nothing partitioning, depending on the DBMS in question.
- File Organizing and Placement: Allocating data from both – database systems and data files – to the correct places is a big step in organizing data and improving Oracle and SQL database performance.
- Checking the Page Size: The size of the block or the page determines how efficiently data can be stored and accessed, which is why it is vital to use the suitable page size. The smaller the size of the page, the fewer rows per page, which increases sequential data access requirements.
- Interleaving: Merging all the data from several tables in a sequence into a file helps enhance join performance. However, this method seems to have become less popular than it used to be.
- Reorganizing Database Objects: Eliminating the defects from the database by reorganizing and arranging database objects is a well-used technique in SQL performance tuning. In fact, it enormously increases performance, especially if the data was previously fragmented, disorganized or scattered in some way.
- Denormalization: This method is considered as a last resort attempt in case the database is unable to perform optimally with a completely normalized implementation. This is because it differs from the logical design.
All of these techniques are useful and should be considered when the DBA creates a plan for tuning and monitoring the database. Each aspect may not necessarily be applicable to every database object but it must be analyzed for its applicability all the same. Moreover, techniques that are not applicable during initial implementation may turn out to be useful as the application undergoes changes over time in various aspects like data volume, usage, and database characteristics.